Financial definitions

Income measures

Gross profit

Net sales less costs of goods sold.

EBITDA

Operating profit before depreciation, amortization and impairment of tangible and intangible assets.

EBIT

Operating profit.

EBITDA before items affecting comparability

EBITDA before items affecting comparability.

EBIT before items affecting comparability

EBIT before items affecting comparability.

Items affecting comparability

Statement items that are non-recurring, have a significant impact on profit and therefore constitute are therefore important adjustments for understanding the underlying development of operations.

Margin measures

Gross margin

Gross profit as a percentage of net sales for the period.

EBITDA margin

EBITDA as a percentage of net sales for the period.

Operating margin (EBIT margin)

EBIT as a percentage of net sales for the period.

EBITDA margin before items affecting comparability

EBITDA before items affecting comparability as a percentage of net sales for the period.

EBIT margin before items affecting comparability

EBIT before items affecting comparability as a percentage of net sales for the period.

Cash flow

Operating cash flow

EBITDA before items affecting comparability plus dividends from associated companies, less cash flow related from investments in tangible and intangible assets, cash flow from changes in working capital and income from associated companies.

Operativ cash conversion

Operating cash flow as a percentage of EBITDA before items affecting comparability for the period.

Capital structure

Net debt

Interest-bearing debts less cash and cash equivalents.

Net debt/EBITDA before items affecting comparability

Net debt in relation to EBITDA before items affecting comparability for the period.

Net debt/equity ratio

Net debt in relation to shareholders’ equity.

Interest cover ratio

Profit after net financial items plus interest expenses in relation to interest expenses.

Equity/assets ratio

Shareholders’ equity including non-controlling interests as a percentage of total assets.

Capital employed

Total assets less non-interest-bearing provisions and liabilities.

Return measures*

Return on shareholders’ equity

Profit after tax attributable to parent company shareholders as a percentage of average shareholders’ equity, excluding non-controlling interests.

Return on shareholders’ equity before items affecting comparability

Profit after tax attributable to parent company shareholders including reversed items affecting comparability as a percentage of average shareholders’ equity, excluding non-controlling interests.

Return on capital employed

EBIT as a percentage of average capital employed, calculated as the average of the period’s opening and closing balances.

Return on capital employed before items affecting comparability

EBIT before items affecting comparability as a percentage of average capital employed, calculated as the average of the period’s opening and closing balances.

Return on capital employed before items affecting comparability and excluding goodwill

EBIT before items affecting comparability as a percentage of average capital employed, excluding goodwill, calculated as the average of the period’s opening and closing balances.

Share data

Earnings per share

Profit after tax for the period attributable to parent company shareholders divided by the average number of outstanding shares for the period.

* Return measures are based on a Rolling Twelve Months (RTM) basis.

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